South Sudan had declared independence from Sudan in July 2010 after it voted overwhelmingly in favor of separation from the North in a referendum. The January 2010 referendum was line with a 2005 peace agreement that ended 22 years of civil war between the Arab North and the Christian and animist South.
Talks between the two nations for resolving outstanding issues triggered by South Sudan gaining independence from Sudan two years ago were stalled in April after fierce border clashes broke out between the two neighboring nations. An estimated 150,000 people have been displaced by the conflict.
In a unanimously adopted resolution in early May, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) had determined that the situation along the Sudan-South Sudan border constituted "a serious threat to international peace and security." Calling on the two countries to immediately end hostilities and resume negotiations, the UNSC declared its intention to take "appropriate measures" if the parties did not comply to the demand by August 2.
The talks between the two neighboring African nations subsequently resumed in late May in the Ethiopian capital city of Addis Ababa, following the UNSC warning. The ongoing talks under the auspices of the African Union (AU) High-Level Implementation Panel are aimed at resolving disputes related to sharing of oil as well as border issues.
Six months ago the Republic of South Sudan became the world's newest nation, officially separating from northern Sudan. But since independence there's been increasing violence in the resource rich border areas of Abyei, Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan and now the situation is worsening again. The United Nations warned that more than two and half million people in South Sudan will require food assistance and Doctors Without Borders says a series of humanitarian emergencies are unfolding as, this month, many thousands of refugees have fled across the border into South Sudan to escape conflict. Jean Pierre Amigo is MSF's Field Coordinator in Maban South Sudan, where they have established a refugee camp. He joined us on a satellite phone.